Write programs for people, not computers
Make your code easy to understand for humans. If your code looks very complex or messy, you’re probably doing it wrong.
- Define functions that do one mayor step each, instead of one giant script doing everything
- Write short scripts that do one task each
- Document only what your code doesn’t say, but nothing else
- Use meaningful and short variable names
- Use consistent code and formatting styles (oneExample, one_example, example-one)
- Make use of indents in your code
Define things once and only once
Let computers repeat and execute tasks.,
- Rule of 3: if you copy-paste code 3 times or more, write a function instead.
- If you do things often, automate them
- e.g., by using scripts, macros, aliases/variables
- write a dictionary with definitions
- Use build tools to automate workflows
Use a version control system
- Add all inputs, but no outputs/generated files
- Work in small changes
- Create snapshots/commits in small and logical steps. This will allow you to go back in time if necessary, and to understand progression.
- Use an issue tracking tool to document problems (e.g., such as the Issue tab on GitHub; email is not an issue tracker!)
Optimize software only after it works correctly
Even experts find it hard to predict performance bottlenecks.
- Get it right, then make it fast
- Small changes can have dramatic impact on performance
- Use a profile to report how much time is spent on each line of code
Content based on Ulrich Bergmann, Matteo Courthoud, Lachlan Deer (2020), Introduction and Motivation, Programming Practices for Research in Economics, University of Zurich.